Rare Universe
Home Creation Evidence General Science Info Old Earth Creation Creation Time Line About

The Fine Tuned Universe

bubble chamberWhen we examine the laws of physics, we find that the laws of nature are entangled by several universal constants. Often these constants relate seemingly unconnected realms of science. Many scientists have marveled at the chance occurrence of certain properties at just the right strengths to permit life in our universe. This goes beyond just allowing carbon based life to exist, but any complexity at all.   

When you consider that everything, even the atom, is made up of particles; you see how delicate our existence is. Most of these particles are unstable, existing for just a fleeting moment. Only a few are stable for long periods of time. Two of these stable particles, protons and electrons make up the atom, along with neutrons which are only stable within an atomic nucleus. It is amazing to consider that the fundamental forces work together to allow atoms to form. There is a delicate balance between the strong nuclear force that binds quarks, and its residual effect that allows protons and neutrons to stick together, vying against the electromagnetic force, which would otherwise push the nucleus apart. Similarly, there are forces preventing the collapse of atoms, keeping the electrons out of the nucleus. The mysterious balance does not stop at the atom, but we see that our whole universe is governed by laws that are finely tuned to allow for complexity and for life.   

Below is a table of just some of the remarkable coincidences of nature that allow us to exist. These quantities have been established to be vitally important to our existence. Altering any one of these by more than the amount listed in the “Variance” column would have devastating effects on the habitability of the universe.

Fine Tuned Properties of Nature
Phys Constant or Parameter Description Variance*
Result of a Non-Tuned Value
αs(Mz) = 0.118 Coupling constant for the strong nuclear force +2% Protons become so “sticky”, that two protons can stick together to form a di-proton pair. The di-proton would be unstable and rapidly decay into deuterium. This would short circuit the slow deuterium formation process that occurred after the big bang and currently in the interior of stars. This leads to a universe devoid of hydrogen, since it all would have burnt up within minutes after the universe began.    
-5% A proton & neutron will not stick to form deuterium, an essential step in the fusion of helium. This would prevent the formation of stable, long lived stars like the sun.    
Lambda Cosmological constant, which acts to accelerate the expansion of the universe. + minuscule amount The small value of the cosmological constant seems to be the result of a cancellation of energy in the quantum vacuum. The problem is it cancels to 10-119 but then leaves residual dark energy behind at the level of 10-120. Had this cancellation been less efficient, by a very small margin, the universe would have expanded too fast for galaxies to form.
- minuscule amount If the cancellation effect was over corrected and the cosmological constant was just slightly negative, the universe would quickly collapse under the combined pull of gravity and negative dark energy.
Ω = 1.00 The initial density of the universe relative to the critical density + minuscule amount A minuscule increase in the density of the universe would have caused it to collapse under the pull of gravity within a few million years. Not leaving enough time for stars or galaxies to form before the universe ends.
- minuscule amount A tiny decrease in the initial density of the universe would have led to the rapid dispersion of the primordial gases before the stars and galaxies could form. 
G = 6.67x 10-11 m3/kg·s2 Universal gravitational constant ± minuscule amount This has the same sensitivity as Ω, with the same effects, since the strength of gravity within general relativity is directly related to the rate of universal expansion.
mp/mn = 0.99862349 Mass of a proton relative to the mass of a neutron +0.2% The proton in this case would be larger in mass than the neutron, making it unstable. All protons would decay into neutrons, and there would be no protons available to make atoms.
-1% The mass difference of the neutron and the proton is directly related to the amount of helium produced shortly after the big bang. Shrinking this ratio increases the helium produced so that all hydrogen is converted to helium within minutes after the universe began. No stable hydrogen burning stars, no biochemistry.
α=1/137.035 Fine structure constant ±1% Deviance outside of this narrow range will prevent the triple alpha process from forming carbon in stars. This fortunate alignment of the strengths of the electromagnetic force (α) and the strong force provides for this process. Without it, stars would be unable to produce elements beyond helium. There would be no carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, etc, required for life.
c = 299,792 km/s Speed of light         The speed of light is related to the fine structure constant, many terms of the metric expansion of space, the relation of energy to mass, etc. Since these quantities are all vitally critical to the bio-friendly nature of the universe, a minute change in the speed of light would preclude our existence just the same.

Here we see these constants are vital to life. The next logical question is "why are the equations the way they are at all?" Why this set of equations and not another? If the constants within these equations are critical, even more so are the equations themselves.   

The Earth is certainly remarkable in its fitfulness for life. But this could be explained by the fact that there are many trillions of worlds from which to choose. This line of reasoning does not work when it comes to the fine tuning of the laws of nature. These laws are the same throughout the visible universe, if they weren't as they are, there would be no planets at all. So this happy mistake is left without a natural explanation.   

Luck cannot explain it either. One universe, one shot at a slot machine with a google to one odds. The simplest and most logical reason, for this fortunate choice of physical laws, is that these constants were not random, but selected. This represents clear evidence that the universe was designed by God. The fine tuned nature of the universe is just as you would expect for a created universe.

Support Us: by liking us on Facebook or sharing our site with a friend. See the following links:

Visit us on Facebook

Share as Bookmark, Tweet, message, etc.
Bookmark and Share
Return to Creation Evidence

updated Oct 15, 2012
(c) 2012  RareUniverse.Org
(see our terms of service)